I’m about to direct a farce, Boeing Boeing, by Marc Camoletti, translated by Beverly Cross & Francis Evans. I thought I’d take you through the process and see what we can learn together about it. These posts will be partly for directors and partly for actors. Whichever side of the proscenium you’re on, it will all hopefully be a little illuminating for you.
The basic structure of a farce is always the same: There’s the set-up. This introduces the characters and sets up their relationships and the premise of the play. It typically (although not always) involves at least one person (and often as many as possible) wanting to go to bed with someone they aren’t supposed to.
Once the set-up is complete — which unfortunately usually takes the full first act, which is always long — the ball really gets going downhill, and fast. Their best-laid plans to have their affair are met with difficulty after difficulty. Their secret is usually on the brink of discovery throughout the rest of the play. At the end, all the loose ends are nicely tied up, the spouse(s) who has been cheated on (assuming that the bedding hasn’t been foiled, and it often is) is none the wiser, true love wins the day, and everyone lives happily ever after. We presume.
The characters in a farce are typically broadly drawn, often to the point of being two dimensional stereotypes. You’d think that with all of that set-up time, there’d be plenty of room to make the characters a little deeper and more interesting, but that’s the rare case. Perhaps playwrights drawn to the form are really into plot and so pay little attention to rounding out their characters.
However, there is another possibility, too — the characters in farces are characters we like . . . up to a point. They generally don’t have a good set of morals, after all — they are a selfish bunch who don’t perceive loyalty or fidelity or fairness to be particularly important guidelines to living. We like them enough to not want them to be found out, but at the same time, if they should be? Well, we’ll see that event as their just desserts. In fact, in a farce where both the husband and wife have taken their lovers to the same hotel in the countryside on the same weekend, we’d be perfectly happy to have them both found out in the same moment. Just as we would trust that they would manage to overlook each other’s infidelities and go back to marital bliss.
Because that is typically the ending of a farce — everyone lives happily ever after. You’re not going to remember a lot about a farce at breakfast the next day, other than that you laughed a bunch. Farces do not demand much thought, but do demand a substantial suspension of disbelief. But the audience rarely has trouble doing this; they recognize very quickly that it is “silly” and not to be taken seriously; it exists only to put people into humorous, desperate situations that make us guffaw.
Farces are often called “French farces”; apparently, the French can be blamed for the fact that the set involves a lot of doors. Doors which remain closed so as to hide what is happening behind them, but threaten to open at just the wrong moment so that those on either side can see each other and discover the shenanigans that are going on. They are inclined to slam shut (with those offstage only occasionally wondering what all the ruckus is about). As often as the playwright can manage it, one door will close at the precise moment that another is opening — one lover exits just as the second lover emerges, and the close call just ratchets up the tension and the fun. It’s all completely unbelievable, but quite frankly, we don’t care.
The word “farce” comes from the Latin “farcive”, which means “to stuff”. Farces are stuffed with characters, with sight gags, with slapstick humor, with doors that open and close so often they almost seem to revolve, with more exits and entrances than any normal play can tolerate, with the impossible piling on top of the improbable. Done well, the audience should feel just as exhausted as the actors at the end of the evening, for we have owned our hero’s distress as much as he has — and in addition to the stress, we have laughed till our sides hurt!
So how do we make this happen? Stay tuned for my thoughts as we move through rehearsals for Boeing Boeing — up next is an exploration of the matter of “how likable does a character in a farce need to be?”